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Lição 26

Lesson Objectives- Objetivos da Lição

Lição 26 presents:

  • the formation and usage of the diminutives,
  • expressions with DAR and
  • new vocabulary.

After completing this lesson, the student will be able to:

  • recognize and produce diminutives.
  • express several idiomatic phrases with DAR.

Grammar – Gramática

Diminutives – Os diminutivos

The diminutive endings are used with great frequency in Brazilian Portuguese. Brazilians tend to load their speech with diminutives, and it is often difficult or impossible to give an adequate English translation of them.

Formation of the diminutive – A formação do diminutivo

The ending -inho/a is attached to words ending with unstressed –o or –a. The final vowel is dropped before the ending is attached. The gender and number of a noun or adjective is then transferred to the diminutive ending.

os carros os carrinhos
uma criança bonita uma criancinha bonitinha
Levantou-se cedo hoje. Levantou-se cedinho hoje.

In some instances it is necessary to make a spelling change before attaching the diminutive ending inho/a.

a amiga a amiguinha
pouco pouquinho

The diminutive of pequeno is an exception: pequenino. It is common practice in Brazil to add still another diminutive to the above form, so the word becomes: pequenininho.

All other diminutives are formed by adding –zinho or –zinha:

o pé o pezinho
a mamãe a mamãezinha
o vovô o vovozinho
o amor o amorzinho
igual igualzinho

When forming the diminutive of words ending in –m, the –m is changed to –before adding the ending:

o jardim jardinzinho
bom bonzinho

When forming the diminutive of plurals, the final –is dropped, and –zinhos or –zinhas is added:

pão pães pãezinhos
papel papéis papeizinhos
flor flores florezinhas

Popular speech does not heed this rule in all cases. For example, it is common to hear florzinhas, luzinhas, etc.

Uses of the diminutive – Usos do diminutivo

The diminutive is used to give the idea of:

Smallness and quaintness
Compramos uma casinha na praia. [We bought a small house on the beach.]
Eles foram para aquele barzinho da esquina. [They went to that friendly corner tavern.]
Size differentiation is often expressed by the diminutive in Portuguese when in English it is necessary to use different words:
gato, gatinho [cat, kitten]
cachorro, cachorrinho [dog, puppy]
pão, pãozinho [bread, roll]
café, cafezinho [coffee, Turkish coffee, espresso]
Affection and tenderness
Venha cá, filhinha! [Come here, honey!]
Benzinho, telefone para você… [The phone is for you, dear…]
Que bebezinho mais fofinho! [What a darling baby!]
Emphasis
Vamos começar agorinha mesmo. [Let’s begin right now.]
O garotinho comeu tudinho. [The little boy ate every last bit.]
O apartamento estava limpinho. [The apartment was very clean.]
Sarcasm
Há algum problema, queridinho? [Is there a problem, dearie?]
Ele tem um empreguinho qualquer. [He has some insignificant little job.]
Change in meaning
O Alan é peixinho da professora. [Alan is the teacher’s pet.]
O que é que há, gatinha? [What’s up, sweet thing?]
A Cristina está fazendo cursinho este ano. [Cristina is taking the entrance examination preparatory course this year.]
26.1 Practice – Prática

26.1 A.

26.1 B.

Idiomatic expressions with dar – Expressões idiomáticas com dar

The verb dar is used frequently to incorporate the idea of sufficiency:

Duvido que a sala  para tantas pessoas. [I doubt the room is large enough for so many people.]
 tempo para a gente ir ao supermercado? [Is there enough time for us to go to the grocery store?]
The following are common idiomatic expressions with dar:
O Felipe vai me dar uma carona. [Felipe will give me a ride.]
Apesar dos preparativos, deu tudo errado. [In spite of all the planning, everything went wrong.]
A mãe deu no filho quando soube o que ele tinha feito. [The mother spanked her son when she found out what he had done.]
Dizem que não há mais ingressos para o concerto e eu preciso de um. Será que o senhor pode dar um jeitinho? [They say there are no more tickets for the concert and I need one. Do you suppose you could get one for me somehow?]
De repente, eu me dei conta do meu erro. [Suddenly, I became aware of my mistake.]
Ricardo não se dá bem com o sogro. [Ricardo does not get along with his father-in-law.]
Será que você pode me dar uma mãozinha agora? [Do you suppose you could give me a hand now?]
O meu apartamento dá para o lago. [My apartment faces the lake.]
26.2 Practice- Prática

26.2 A.

Vocabulary – Vocabulário

Verbs – Verbos

Expressions – Expressões