Learning Objectives – Objetivos da Lição
Lição 8 presents:
- objects of prepositions,
- direct object pronouns, and
- relevant vocabulary.
After completing this lesson, the student will be able to:
- recognize and produce sentences with both objects of prepositions and direct object pronouns.
Grammar – Gramática
Objects of Prepositions – Objetos de preposições
The following pronouns are used after prepositions:
|você, o senhor, a senhora||[you]||vocês, os senhores, as senhoras||[you]|
|ele, ela||[him, her]||eles, elas||[them]|
|quanto a mim…||[as for me…]|
|longe de nós…||[far from us…]|
|É para ele.||[It’s for him.]|
|Recebeu uma carta de vocês.||[He received a letter from you.]|
The prepositions de and em must combine with the third person pronouns. They do not, however, combine with the other pronouns:
|de + ele = dele||[from him, of him]|
|de + eles = deles||[from them, of them]|
|de + ela = dela||[from her, of her]|
|de + elas = delas||[from them, of them]|
|de mim||[of me, from me]|
|de você||[of you, from you]|
|de nós||[of us, from us]|
|em + ele = nele||[in it, at it, on it]|
|em + eles = neles||[in them, at them, on them]|
|em + ela = nela||[in it, at it, on it]|
|em + elas = nelas||[in them, at them, on them]|
|em mim||[in me, at me, on me]|
|em vocês||[in you, at you, on you]|
The preposition com must combine with the first person pronouns. While other forms do combine (contigo), it doesn’t combine with the other pronouns (você(s), ele(s), ela(s)).
|com você||[with you]|
|com elas||[with them]|
8.1 Practice – Prática
The direct object pronouns – Os pronomes de objetos diretos
|o, a||[him, it, you] [her, it you]||os, as||[them, you] [them, you]|
*It is not uncommon in Brazilian Portuguese to use the informal direct object pronoun te when referring to “you,” although o or a may also be used. The direct object pronoun for “you plural” vos, is not commonly used.
Placement of direct object pronouns – Colocação de pronomes de objeto direto
The object pronoun may be placed before or after the verb. When it follows the verb, it must be attached to it by a hyphen:
|Ele me viu.||[He saw me.]|
|Ele viu-me.||[He saw me.]|
|Eles nos ouvem.||[They hear us.]|
|Eles ouvem-nos.||[They hear us.]|
|Eu os dou a Vânia.||[I give them to Vânia.]|
|Eu dou-os a Vânia.||[I give them to Vânia.]|
When the object pronoun is attached to the conjugated verb form, the use of the subject pronoun is optional. However, when the object pronoun is placed before the conjugated verb form, it is customary to use a subject. Do not begin a Portuguese sentence with the object pronouns o(s) and a(s).
(In Brazil, popular usage permits the use of the other object pronouns at the beginning of a sentence. Example: Me viu. – He saw me.)
If used in a negative or interrogative sentence or in a dependent clause, the object pronoun must precede the conjugated verb, unless it is logically associated with a following infinitive. In the latter case, it may precede the infinitive or follow and be attached to it by a hyphen.
|Maria não nos ouviu.||[Mary didn’t hear us.]|
|Sei que ela nos ouviu.||[I know that she heard us.]|
|Quando você o perdeu?||[When did you lose it?]|
|Meus tios querem nos visitar.||[My aunt and uncle want to visit us.]|
|Meus tios querem visitar-nos.||[My aunt and uncle want to visit us.]|
Generally, if an adverb precedes the verb, the object pronoun is also placed before the verb.
|Ele já me pagou.||[He has already paid me.]|
|Sempre os damos aos pobres.||[We always give them to the poor.]|
The unstressed object pronouns (o, a, os, as) may precede a present participle with which it is logically associated or follow and be attached to it by a hyphen. They may also be placed before an auxiliary verb such as estar:
|João o estava preparando.||[John was preparing it.]|
|João estava o preparando.||[John was preparing it.]|
|João estava preparando-o.||[John was preparing it.]|
When the third person direct object pronouns (o, os, a, as) are attached to infinitives, the –r is dropped and an l is put before the pronoun:
|Vou visitar o meu amigo.||[I’m going to visit my friend.]|
|Vou visitá-lo.||[I’m going to visit him.]|
*–ar verbs must have an acute accent on the final –á when the –r is dropped-.
|Queremos comer as maçãs.||[We want to eat the apples.]|
|Queremos comê-las.||[We want to eat them.]|
*-er verbs must have a circumflex on the final -ê when the –r is dropped.
|Não posso abrir o arquivo.||[I can’t open the file.]|
|Não posso abri-lo.||[I can’t open it.]|
*-ir verbs need no written accent when the –r is dropped since the final –i automatically receives the stress.
It is very common in colloquial Brazilian Portuguese to omit the third person object pronouns (o, os, a, as) if the meaning of the sentence is readily comprehensible without the object form. This usually occurs when the sentence is in reply to a question or in a two-part sentence in which English requires the repetition of the object:
|Quem fez as lições?||[Who did the lessons?]|
|– Eu fiz.||[ – I did them.]|
|Por que ele comeu as laranjas?||[Why did he eat the oranges?]|
|– Comeu porque tinha fome.||[ – He ate them because he was hungry.]|
|Onde você viu João?||[Where did you see John?]|
|– Vi no restaurante.||[ – I saw him in the restaurant.]|
|Ela foi até à porta e abriu.||[She went to the door and opened it.]|
|Aprendemos as palavras novas e depois usamos em sentenças.||[We learned the new words and then used them in sentences.]|
The forms você(s), o(s) senhor(es) and a(s) senhora(s) can also be used as direct object pronouns. They must always follow the verb.
|Eu vi vocês ontem.||[I saw you yesterday.]|
|Não ouvimos o senhor muito bem.||[We didn’t hear you very well.]|
It is also common to hear Brazilian speakers use the forms ele, eles, ela, elas which are always placed after the verb. One should be familiar with the correct usage as explained in the preceding paragraphs as well as the everyday Brazilian usage.
|Vejo ela todos os dias.||[I see her every day.]|
|Conhecemos eles ontem.||[We met them yesterday.]|
Placement of object pronouns in Continental Portuguese with verb forms ending in -s, -z, and nasals – A colocação de pronomes de objetos em português europeu com as formas verbais que terminam em -s, -z e nasais.
When the third person direct object pronouns (o, os, a, as) are attached to verb forms ending in –s, the –s is dropped and an l is placed before the pronoun:
|Nós os vemos todos os dias.||[We see them every day.]|
|Vemo-los todos os dias.||[We see them every day.]|
|Ela e eu bebemos a cerveja.||[She and I drink the beer.]|
|Bebemo-la.||[We drink it.]|
When the third person direct object pronouns (o, os, a, as) are attached to verb forms ending in –z, the final –z is dropped and an l is put before the pronoun. When the –z is dropped from one syllable verb forms, an acute accent must be placed on the vowel of that form if it is an –á; a circumflex if it is an –ê:
|Maria o faz.||[Mary does it.]|
|Fá-lo.||[She does it.]|
|João os traz.||[John brings them.]|
|Trá-los.||[He brings them.]|
|Fez o exercício.||[She did the exercise.]|
|Fê-lo.||[She did it.]|
|Diz a verdade.||[He tells the truth.]|
|Di-la.||[He tells it.]|
When the third person direct object pronouns (o, os, a, as) follow and are attached to verb forms ending in a nasal sound (-ão, -õe, -am, -em), it is necessary to put an n before the pronoun:
|Eles o vêem.||[They see it.]|
|Vêem-no.||[They see it.]|
|Ela os põe em cima da mesa.||[She puts them on the table.]|
|Põe-nos em cima da mesa.||[She puts them on the table.]|
|Elas os dão ao professor.||[They give them to the teacher.]|
|Dão-nos ao professor.||[They give them to the teacher.]|
|Eles as estudam.||[They study them.]|
|Estudam-nas.||[They study them.]|
*NOTE: The above does not pertain to contemporary Brazilian usage, except in the most formal of situations.
8.2 Practice – Prática
8.2 A. Put the pronoun which is between parentheses in its correct place in the following sentences. Notice the example.
(me) João vai buscar.
João vai buscar-me.
João vai me buscar.
2. (nos) Vão convidar.
3. (o) Eu faço.
4. (nos) Eles não viram.
5. (as) Alice está tocando.
6. (me) Eles ouvem quando eu falo.
7. (a) Você põe em cima da mesa.
8. (me) Depois de ver.
9. (o) Depois de comprar.
10. (nos) Estão ajudando.
8.2 B. Substitute the emphasized word(s) with the correct direct object pronoun and place it correctly.
2. Nós comemos as maçãs.
3. Ela viu Jorge no supermercado.
4. Eu estava lá. João Carlos _________ viu.
5. Nós compreendemos Teresa e Diana.
6. Ela quer aprender a lição.
7. Nós vamos comprar os sapatos.
8. Você pode ouvir Chico e eu?
9. O gatinho queria abrir as fitas.
10. Eu estou escrevendo o exercício.
Vocabulary – Vocabulário
- a coleção [collection]
- o disco [record]
- o CD [compact disc]
- o êxito [success]
- a fita [tape]
- o gravador [tape recorder]
- infelizmente [unfortunately]
- o instrumento [instrument]
- interessado, -a [interested]
- a música [music]
- música clássica/popular [classical/pop music]
- nunca [never]
- a ópera [opera]
- o piano [piano]
- quanto a [as for]
- o samba [samba]
- o/a sambista [samba composer]
- segundo [according to]
- o show [concert; show]
- sozinho, -a [alone]
- o toca-discos [record player]
- o toca-fitas [tape player]
- o violino [violin]
Verbs – Verbos
- aceitar [to accept]
- apreciar [to appreciate]
- cantar [to sing]
- continuar [to continue, go on]
- desligar [to turn off, disconnect]
- emprestar [to lend]
- entender [to understand]
- gravar [to record]
- lançar [to release (an album, etc)]
- perder (perco) [to lose; miss]
- quebrar [to break]
- sambar [to do the samba, to dance samba]
Expressions – Expressões
- agora mesmo [right now]
- o ano que vem [next year]
- o ano que passou [last year]
- melhor ainda / ainda melhor [better yet, even better]
- horas a fio [hours on end]
- ter êxito [to be successful]
8.3 Practice – Prática
8.3 A. Translate the following sentences:
2. They are sitting far from us.
3. We are near them.
4. I am going to take Raimundo along with me.
5. As for him, he can’t go with us.
6. We know that Mário prepares them every day.
7. Did you see us last night? We saw you.
8. She invited us to visit them.